Toxicity Testing For Assessment Of Environmental Agents

Toxicity Testing for Assessment of Environmental Agents PDF
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309100925
Size: 12.62 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 270
View: 7543

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Toxicity testing in laboratory animals provides much of the information used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess the hazards and risks associated with exposure to environmental agents that might harm public health or the environment. The data are used to establish maximum acceptable concentrations of environmental agents in drinking water, set permissible limits of exposure of workers, define labeling requirements, establish tolerances for pesticides residues on food, and set other kinds of limits on the basis of risk assessment. Because the number of regulations that require toxicity testing is growing, EPA called for a comprehensive review of established and emerging toxicity-testing methods and strategies. This interim report reviews current toxicity-testing methods and strategies and near-term improvements in toxicity-testing approaches proposed by EPA and others. It identifies several recurring themes and questions in the various reports reviewed. The final report will present a long-range vision and strategic plan to advance the practices of toxicity testing and human health assessment of environmental contaminants.

Toxicity Testing In The 21st Century

Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century PDF
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309109922
Size: 64.38 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 216
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Advances in molecular biology and toxicology are paving the way for major improvements in the evaluation of the hazards posed by the large number of chemicals found at low levels in the environment. The National Research Council was asked by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to review the state of the science and create a far-reaching vision for the future of toxicity testing. The book finds that developing, improving, and validating new laboratory tools based on recent scientific advances could significantly improve our ability to understand the hazards and risks posed by chemicals. This new knowledge would lead to much more informed environmental regulations and dramatically reduce the need for animal testing because the new tests would be based on human cells and cell components. Substantial scientific efforts and resources will be required to leverage these new technologies to realize the vision, but the result will be a more efficient, informative and less costly system for assessing the hazards posed by industrial chemicals and pesticides.

In Vitro Toxicity Testing Of Environmental Agents

In Vitro Toxicity Testing of Environmental Agents PDF
Author: Alan R. Kolber
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781461335689
Size: 75.36 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 553
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These two volumes contain the papers presented at a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Advanced Study Institute held on September 22-28, 1979 in Monte Carlo, Monaco. The conference was entitled "In Vitro Toxicity Testing of Environmental Agents: Current and Future Possibilities." This international conference presented an opportunity for the participants to exchange informa tion and ideas on the current approaches (both scientific and po litical) for toxic assessment of environmental agents. The poten tial health effects of these compounds as well as future needs in the environmental research field were discussed. The scientific content of the conference seminars included an overview of the various cellular, subcellular, organ, animal, and genetic systems which have been used to assess the health effects of environmental agents. The scientific principles behind short term assays and an evaluation of their applicability to health effects monitoring and analysis were investigated. Included among major topics were: (1) the biochemistry and pharmacology of selected environmental agents; (2) molecular mechanisms of car cinogenesis, mutagenesis, and transformation; (3) bacterial muta genesis and toxicity; (4) mammalian cell mutagenesis, toxicity, and transformation; (5) in vitro carcinogens and mutagens; (6) teratogenic and other developmental toxic effects; and (7) the development of short-term neuro-behavioral toxicity assays.

In Vitro Toxicity Testing Of Environmental Agents

In Vitro Toxicity Testing of Environmental Agents PDF
Author: Alan R. Kolber
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9780306411236
Size: 39.55 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 553
View: 2932

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These two volumes contain the papers presented at a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Advanced Study Institute held on September 22-28, 1979 in Monte Carlo, Monaco. The conference was entitled "In Vitro Toxicity Testing of Environmental Agents: Current and Future Possibilities." This international conference presented an opportunity for the participants to exchange informa tion and ideas on the current approaches (both scientific and po litical) for toxic assessment of environmental agents. The poten tial health effects of these compounds as well as future needs in the environmental research field were discussed. The scientific content of the conference seminars included an overview of the various cellular, subcellular, organ, animal, and genetic systems which have been used to assess the health effects of environmental agents. The scientific principles behind short term assays and an evaluation of their applicability to health effects monitoring and analysis were investigated. Included among major topics were: (1) the biochemistry and pharmacology of selected environmental agents; (2) molecular mechanisms of car cinogenesis, mutagenesis, and transformation; (3) bacterial muta genesis and toxicity; (4) mammalian cell mutagenesis, toxicity, and transformation; (5) in vitro carcinogens and mutagens; (6) teratogenic and other developmental toxic effects; and (7) the development of short-term neuro-behavioral toxicity assays.

Handbook Of Laboratory Animal Science Volume Ii

Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science  Volume II PDF
Author: Jann Hau
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420084585
Size: 30.55 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 478
View: 7586

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Biomedical research involving animals remains essential for the advancement of the medical, veterinary, agricultural, and biological sciences. Following in the footsteps of its predecessors, the Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science, Volume II, Third Edition: Animal Models explains in great detail the comparative considerations underlying the choic

Tragic Failures

Tragic Failures PDF
Author: Carl F. Cranor
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190635754
Size: 55.95 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 264
View: 4173

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The world is awash in chemicals created by fellow citizens, but we know little to nothing about them. Understanding whether even the most prevalent ones are toxic would take decades. Many people have tragically suffered serious diseases and premature death, including children during development. Why has this occurred? Many factors contribute, but two important ones are the laws permitting this and the manner in which science has been used to identify and assess whether or not products are toxic. Both are the outcome of legislative, corporate, and judicial choices. Congress created laws that in fact keep public health officials and the wider population in the dark about the toxicity of virtually all substances other than prescription drugs and pesticides. Facing considerable ignorance about toxic substances, impartially motivated scientists seeking to protect the public health are constrained by the natural pace of studies to reveal toxic effects. Corporate pressures on public health officials and scientific obstruction substantially heighten the barriers to protecting the public. When people have suffered serious as well as life-threatening diseases likely traceable to toxic substances, judicial errors barring relevant science in the personal injury (tort) law can and have frustrated redress of injustices. Under both public health law and the tort law, there are possibilities for improved approaches, provided public leaders make different and better choices. This book describes these issues and suggests how we could be better protected from myriad toxic substances in our midst.

Ecotoxicology Modeling

Ecotoxicology Modeling PDF
Author: James Devillers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441901972
Size: 57.40 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 412
View: 6515

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Ecotoxicology Modeling is a comprehensive and well-documented text providing a collection of computational methods to the ecotoxicologists primarily interested in the study of the adverse effects of chemicals, their mechanisms of action and/or their environmental fate and behavior. Avoiding mathematical jargon, the book presents numerous case studies to enable the reader to understand the interest but also the limitations of linear and nonlinear models in ecotoxicology. Written by an international team of scientists, Ecotoxicology Modeling is of primary interest to those whose research or professional activity is directly concerned with the development and application of models in ecotoxicology. It is also intended to provide the graduate and post-graduate students with a clear and accessible text covering the main types of modeling approaches used in environmental sciences.